In most countries where “roman law” or civil law is “novel”, there is no “jury” in the English sense, and trials are necessarily trial formations. However, in more complicated cases, lay judges may be called. They are not chosen at random, as are juries. They volunteer and vote as judges. A court case (whether criminal or civil) presided over by a judge has certain characteristics, but it is basically the same as a jury, but without the jury. For example, the rules of evidence and methods of rejection in a court case are the same as in a jury trial. However, trial trials are often more informal than jury trials. There is often less need to protect the registration with objections, and sometimes proof of benefit or provisional proof is accepted, subject to the possibility of being deleted in the future. Summary criminal proceedings are conducted by a sheriff of the Sheriff`s Court or a justice of the peace of the Court of the Peace sitting alone under the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995.
Trials that require jurors are called solemn procedures and are also governed by the above-mentioned law. In U.S. law, for most criminal cases that go to court, jury hearings are usually a no-brainer, as it is a constitutional right under the Sixth Amendment and cannot be waived without certain requirements. In the federal judicial system, under section 23 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, where an accused is entitled to a jury trial, the trial must be conducted by jurors, unless (1) the defendant waives a trial by jury in writing, (2) the government agrees, and (3) the court approves it. In the different judicial systems of states, the waiver of a jury trial may vary depending on the jurisdiction. Missouri has Rule 27.01(b) of the Missouri Supreme Court, “The defendant may, with the consent of the court, waive a jury trial and submit the hearing of a criminal case to the court… »; the Crown does not need to agree. Expedited proceedings may be heard by a single Magistrates` Court or by a panel of at least two, but usually also by three judges. While a jury renders a judgment, a judge in a court case does the same by making a statement.  In the United States, a jury trial is a constitutional right under the Sixth Amendment.
In the federal court system, if a defendant is entitled to a jury trial, the trial must be conducted by a jury, unless (1) the defendant waives the trial with jury in writing, (2) the government agrees, and (3) the court approves it. In each State, the circumstances in which judicial proceedings apply vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Most civil trials are held without jurors and are heard by a judge sitting alone. Most civil cases in Scotland are conducted in sheriff`s court by a sheriff sitting alone. In the Court of Session, a judge usually sits alone in the outer or inner house; may, however, sit with a jury in certain processes such as bodily injury. See: Jury trial in Scotland A trial at first instance is a trial by a judge, as opposed to a trial by a jury.  The term best applies to any administrative hearing relating to a summary offence in order to distinguish the nature of the proceeding. Many legal systems (Roman, Islamic) use court proceedings for most or all cases or for certain types of cases. Trial in first instance refers to the type of trial in which no jury is involved, but which is conducted by the judge alone, in which the judge both decides the facts of the case and applies the law.
The word bench in the law refers to the judge, so a trial in formation is a trial conducted by a judge, as opposed to a trial with a jury. Section 47 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003, while allowing trial for criminal offences, is rarely used as it has only been exercised twice since its inception.  “Legal Proceedings Merriam-Webster.com Legal Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/legal/bench%20trial. Retrieved 3 October 2022. One of the recommendations of the 2008-2009 Commission of Inquiry in the Turks and Caicos Islands was that arrangements be made for criminal proceedings without a jury, as was the case in England and Wales. Other examples include the United States, the Commonwealth of Nations, including India and Canada, the British Overseas Territories of the Falkland Islands and St. Helena, and the Netherlands.  In trial trials, in addition to legal findings, the judge also plays the role of the jury as an investigator.
In some court cases, both parties have already established all the facts of the case (for example, cases of civil disobedience to test the constitutionality of a law). These cases tend to be faster than jury trials because less formality is required. For example, there is no jury selection phase and no need for sequestration and jury instructions. Some court proceedings such as probate, family law, juvenile cases and other civil cases generally do not involve jury trials. In these courts, judges regularly rule on questions of fact and law.